Discovery of distinct lung cancer prognosis may lead to more targeted treatments

Discovery of distinct lung cancer prognosis may lead to more targeted treatments

August 07, 2019

National Cancer Institute stated that lung adenocarcinoma, the most common type of lung cancer is known for its poor prognosis. The researchers at Mayo Clinic of Florida campus can now distinguish between two pathways where this deadly cancer can develop. As per the experts, the findings appear in cancer cell that has led to the new discovery of the lung cancer prognosis.

The ability to identify the specific pathway by which a patient’s lung adenocarcinoma came about increases our ability to predict which patients are likely – or unlikely – to benefit from a particular treatment, and hopefully offer alternative options to patients whose cancer subtype is unlikely to respond,” says Alan Fields, Ph.D., a cancer biologist and the study’s senior author.

He and his team studied the molecular features of lung adenocarcinoma in mice and found two ways that this cancer can develop. The first way depends on the cancer-causing gene known as “protein kinase C iota (PKCiota).” The second pathway, identified as the “Wnt/Beta-catenin signalling pathway,” was found to operate independently of PKCiota. Lung adenocarcinomas that stem from the two different pathways were also found to form in different regions of the lung and through different cells of origin.

Dr. Fields and colleagues began by comparing the pathways in the mouse model to the six known molecular subtypes of this cancer in humans. The scientists found a match: a molecular marker that allowed them to predict which human lung adenocarcinoma cells originated from the PKCiota-independent pathway that they had discovered in mice.

The team of Dr. Fields also conducted an experiment on human cells and the mouse model to know whether the tumors arising from the PKCiota –dependent and independent pathways might be sensitive to specific cancer therapies. They found that two drugs affected the adenocarcinoma subtypes differently, depending on their underlying pathway. These results suggested to the investigators that they can predict how these cancer subtypes will respond to targeted therapies.

The team in their next step will work to determine whether they can effectively and specifically identify PKCiota – dependent versus independent lung adenocarcinoma in human patients and confirm whether experimental drugs can predictably inhibit the growth of lung cancer in the PKCiota – dependent and independent patients.

The researchers think that their findings may apply beyond lung cancer because the PKCiot pathway is also important to other cancers.

This work is based on previous efforts by Dr. Fields and colleagues, who were the first to discover the connection between PKCiota, and the initiation, promotion and spread of lung cancers.

Source: Mayo Clinic

Author : Meha Prasad

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